Aneurysm Repair Surgery In India At Mumbai And Delhi At Low Cost.}

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Submitted by: P Nagpal Nagpal

Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Repai

What is a Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm ?

A thoracic aortic aneurysm, also called TAA, is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of the aorta (the largest artery in the body), resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning greater than 50 percent of the normal diameter (width).

The aorta extends upward from the top of the left ventricle of the heart in the chest area (ascending thoracic aorta), then curves like a candy cane (aortic arch) downward through the chest area (descending thoracic aorta) into the abdomen (abdominal aorta). The aorta delivers oxygenated blood pumped from the heart to the rest of the body.

An aneurysm can be characterized by its location, shape, and cause. A thoracic aortic aneurysm is located in the chest area. The thoracic aorta can be divided into segments: ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta, as described above. An aneurysm may be located in one of these areas and/or may be continuous throughout the aorta. An aneurysm called a thoracoabdominal aneurysm involves a thoracic aortic aneurysm extending down to the abdominal aorta.

Aneurysm Repair Surgery, Aneurysm Surgery India Aneurysm Repair Surgery, Aneurysm Surgery India, Vascular Surgeon, Thoracic Aneurysms

Thoracic aneurysms do not occur as often as abdominal aneurysms. The descending thoracic aorta is the most common location of a thoracic aneurysm, followed by the ascending segment, then the arch.

The location of an aneurysm is distinctly connected with the cause, course, and treatment of a thoracic aneurysm.

Types of thoracic aortic aneurysms

The shape of an aneurysm is described as being fusiform or saccular which helps to identify a true aneurysm. A true aneurysm involves all three layers of the arterial blood vessel wall.

The more common fusiform-shaped aneurysm bulges or balloons out on all sides of the aorta. A saccular-shaped aneurysm bulges or balloons out only on one side.

A pseudoaneurysm, or false aneurysm, is an enlargement of only the outer layer of the blood vessel wall. A false aneurysm may be the result of prior surgery or trauma.

Sometimes, a tear may occur on the inside layer of the vessel resulting in blood entering the layers of the blood vessel wall, creating a pseudoaneurysm.

Aneurysm Repair Surgery, Vascular Surgeon, Thoracic Aneurysms

[ Types of Aneurysms ]

The aorta is under constant pressure from blood being ejected from the heart. With each heartbeat, the walls of the aorta expand and spring back, exerting continual pressure or stress on the already weakened aneurysm wall.

Therefore, there is a potential for rupture (bursting) or dissection (separation of the layers of the thoracic aortic wall), which may cause life-threatening hemorrhage (uncontrolled bleeding) and, potentially, death.

Once formed, an aneurysm will gradually increase in size and there will be a progressive weakening of the aneurysm wall. Treatment for a thoracic aneurysm may include surgical repair or removal of the aneurysm to prevent rupture.

What causes a thoracic aortic aneurysm to form ?

Thoracic aortic aneurysms may be caused by different disease processes, especially in respect to their location.

Examples of different locations of thoracic aortic aneurysms and their causes may include, but are not limited to, the following : –

Location of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Causes Associated with Aneurysm Type

Ascending Thoracic Aneurysm

* cystic medial degeneration (necrosis) – breaking down of the tissue of the aortic wall. This is the most common cause of this type of thoracic aortic aneurysm.

* genetic disorders which affect the connective tissue, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

* family history of thoracic aortic aneurysm with no incidence of Marfan syndrome

* atherosclerosis – hardening of the arteries caused by a build-up of plaque in the inner lining of an artery. This is a rare cause of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm.

* infection, syphilis (rare causes of thoracic aortic aneurysm)

Aortic Arch Thoracic Aneurysm

* Takayasu’s arteritis – a type of vasculitis that causes inflammation of the arteries

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* atherosclerosis

* continuation of an ascending and/or descending aortic aneurysm

Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Atherosclerosis is most often associated with descending thoracic aneurysms, and is thought to play an important role in aneurysmal disease, including the risk factors associated with atherosclerosis such as : –

* age (greater than 55)

* male gende

* family history (first-degree relatives such as father or brother)

* genetic factors

* hyperlipidemia (elevated fats in the blood)

* hypertension (high blood pressure)

* smoking

* diabetes

What are the symptoms of a thoracic aortic aneurysm ?

Thoracic aortic aneurysms may be asymptomatic (without symptoms) or symptomatic (with symptoms). Symptoms of a thoracic aneurysm may be related to the location, size, and growth rate of the aneurysm. Severe onset of pain associated with a thoracic aneurysm may be a sign of a life-threatening medical emergency.

Symptoms of an ascending thoracic aneurysm may include, but are not limited to, the following : –

* pain in the chest, neck, and/or back

* swelling of head, neck, and arms as a result of pressure on large blood vessels

* heart failure – an ascending aneurysm may affect the heart valves, causing blood to back up into the heart

Symptoms of an aortic arch aneurysm or a descending thoracic aneurysm may include, but are not limited to, the following : –

* wheezing, coughing, or shortness of breath as a result of pressure on the trachea (windpipe)

* coughing up blood (hemoptysis)

* hoarseness as a result of pressure on the vocal cords

* difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) due to pressure on the esophagus

* pain in the chest and/or back

The symptoms of a thoracic aortic aneurysm may resemble other conditions. Consult your physician for a diagnosis.

How is a thoracic aortic aneurysm diagnosed ?

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for a thoracic aortic aneurysm may include any, or a combination,

of the following : –

* Computed tomography scan (Also called a CT or CAT scan.) : – A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard x-rays.

* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) : – a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

* Echocardiogram (ECG/EKG) : – a procedure that evaluates the structure and function of the heart by using sound waves recorded on an electronic senso

* Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) : – a diagnostic procedure that uses echocardiography to assess the presence of an aneurysm, the condition of heart valves, and/or presence of a dissection (tear) of the lining of the aorta. TEE is performed by inserting a probe with a transducer on the end down the throat.

* Chest X-ray : – a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.

* Arteriogram (angiogram) : – an x-ray image of the blood vessels used to evaluate various conditions, such as aneurysm, stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessel), or blockages. A dye (contrast) will be injected through a thin flexible tube placed in an artery. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray.

Treatment for thoracic aortic aneurysm

Treatment may include : –

* routine MRI or CT : – to monitor the size and rate of growth of the aneurysm

* controlling or modifying risk factors : – steps such as quitting smoking, controlling blood sugar if diabetic, losing weight if overweight or obese, and controlling dietary fat intake may help to control the progression of the aneurysm

* medication : – to control factors such as hyperlipidemia (elevated levels of fats in the blood) and/or high blood pressure

Surgery : –

* Thoracic aortic aneurysm open repai

The type of surgical repair of a thoracic aortic aneurysm will depend on several factors: the location of the aneurysm, the type of aneurysm, and the patient’s tolerance for the procedure.

For an ascending or aortic arch aneurysm, a large incision may be made through the breastbone (median sternotomy). If an ascending aneurysm involves damage to the aortic valve of the heart, the valve may be repaired or replaced during the procedure.

For a descending aneurysm, a large incision may extend from the back under the shoulder blade around the side of the rib cage to just under the breast (thoracotomy).

These approaches allow the surgeon to visualize the aorta directly to repair the aneurysm.

* Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)

EVAR is a procedure which requires only small incisions in the groin, along with the use of x-ray guidance and specially-designed instruments, to repair the aneurysm by inserting a tube, called a stent-graft, inside the aorta.

Asymptomatic aneurysms may not require surgical intervention until they reach a certain size or are noted to be increasing in size over a certain period of time.

Parameters considered when making surgical decisions include, but are not limited to, the following : –

* aneurysm size greater than 5.5 to 6 centimeters (greater than two inches)

* aneurysm growth rate 0.5 centimeters (slightly less than one-fourth inch) over a period of six months to one yea

* presence of genetic disorders or familial history of thoracic aneurysms

* patient’s ability to tolerate the procedure

What is aortic dissection ?

An aortic dissection begins with a tear in the inner layer of the aortic wall, usually in the ascending or descending thoracic aorta. The aortic wall is made up of three layers of tissue.

When a tear occurs in the innermost layer of the aortic wall, blood is then channeled into the wall of the aorta separating the layers of tissues. This generates great pressure in the aortic wall with a potential to rupture (burst). Aortic dissection can be a life-threatening emergency.

Aneurysm Surgery India, Thoracic Aneurysms, Surgical Aneurysm Repai

What causes aortic dissection ?

The cause of aortic dissection is still under investigation.

However, there are several risk factors associated with aortic dissection, such as : –

* hypertension (high blood pressure)

* connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan’s disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Turner’s syndrome

* cystic medial disease (a degenerative disease of the aortic wall)

* aortitis (inflammation of the aorta)

* atherosclerosis

* existing thoracic aneurysm

* bicuspid aortic valve – presence of only two cusps, or leaflets, in the aortic valve, rather than the normal three cusps

* trauma

* coarctation of the aorta (narrowing of the aorta)

* hypervolemia (excess fluid or volume in the circulation)

* polycystic kidney disease (a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts filled with fluid in the kidneys)

What are the symptoms of aortic dissection ?

The most commonly reported symptom of an acute aortic dissection is severe, constant chest and/or upper back pain, sometimes described as “ripping” or “tearing.” The pain may be “migratory,” moving from one place to another, according to the direction and extent of the dissection.

How is aortic dissection diagnosed ?

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for an aneurysm may include any, or a combination,

of the following : –

* computed tomography scan (Also called a CT or CAT scan.) : – a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body.

A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.

* transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) : – a diagnostic procedure that uses echocardiography to assess the heart’s function and structures. A transesophageal echocardiogram is performed by inserting a probe with a transducer down the esophagus.

By inserting the transducer in the esophagus, TEE provides a clearer image of the heart because the sound waves do not have to pass through skin, muscle, or bone tissue.

The physician will determine the most appropriate examination. When a diagnosis of aortic dissection is confirmed, immediate intervention, such as surgery, is usually performed.

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Israeli PM Ariel Sharon to undergo more surgery

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Sunday, January 15, 2006

Ariel Sharon, 77, is scheduled to undergo a tracheotomy today, which is expected to help wean him off a respirator, which is helping him to breathe, a hospital statement said.

A tracheotomy is a procedure where an incision in the windpipe is made to create a temporary or permanent opening. It will allow for the removal of the breathing tube now inserted in Sharon’s throat. Sharon suffered a major stroke on January 4, 2006. Last week, doctors said the plastic tube connecting his windpipe with the respirator would start to cause him damage if left in for too long.

Tracheotomies are routinely performed on stroke victims to reduce the risk of infection posed by intubation.

“The prime minister’s condition continues to remain critical but stable,” said a statement issued by Jerusalem’s Hadassah hospital where doctors have been trying, unsuccessfully, to wake Sharon from a medically induced coma. “This evening the prime minister will undergo a CT test after which he will undergo a tracheotomy. The surgery is aimed at helping to wean him off a respirator machine. It will be conducted in the operating room under general anaesthesia.”

Israeli PM Ariel Sharon to undergo more surgery

In CategoryUncategorized
By5M4zvM

Sunday, January 15, 2006

Ariel Sharon, 77, is scheduled to undergo a tracheotomy today, which is expected to help wean him off a respirator, which is helping him to breathe, a hospital statement said.

A tracheotomy is a procedure where an incision in the windpipe is made to create a temporary or permanent opening. It will allow for the removal of the breathing tube now inserted in Sharon’s throat. Sharon suffered a major stroke on January 4, 2006. Last week, doctors said the plastic tube connecting his windpipe with the respirator would start to cause him damage if left in for too long.

Tracheotomies are routinely performed on stroke victims to reduce the risk of infection posed by intubation.

“The prime minister’s condition continues to remain critical but stable,” said a statement issued by Jerusalem’s Hadassah hospital where doctors have been trying, unsuccessfully, to wake Sharon from a medically induced coma. “This evening the prime minister will undergo a CT test after which he will undergo a tracheotomy. The surgery is aimed at helping to wean him off a respirator machine. It will be conducted in the operating room under general anaesthesia.”

How To Choose A Right Sedation Dentist In Reading?}

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How to Choose a Right Sedation Dentist in Reading?

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Affordable Dental Solutions

Sedation dentistry is an option approach to experience a pain-free dental procedure. Today, “sedation dentistry” is promoted by various dental specialists over the globe. This dental technique alludes to the utilization of anesthesia among treatment to put the patient into a more casual state. In circumstances where broad measure of time is required to have the capacity to play out a specific strategy, sedation dentistry is a decent alternative to pick. Sedation is perfect for patients who show apprehension of dental systems particularly among pediatric patients. A few types of sedation dentistry essentially diminish the patient’s level of nervousness or spot understanding in a rest like state. This is done as such that little is felt or recollected from the dental strategy.

How to Pick a Right Sedation Dentist Reading:

The medicines that cause sedation are given by a qualified dental specialist as a major aspect of dental treatment. This is demonstrated for patients who require additional consideration, for example, youthful or elderly patient who has a low resistance to pain, or perhaps because of a fear or other unspecified medicinal conditions. The most ordinarily utilized sedation strategies are inward breath anesthesia, oral cognizant sedation, general anesthesia, and intravenous (IV) sedation. The methodology requires the nearness of a capable sedation dental specialist since this is a basic dental technique. In the event that you are attempting to locate a qualified sedation dental practitioner for you or a relative, read the tips beneath for guidance on picking the most qualified dental specialist.

You should keep in your psyche the accompanying issues to examine with a sedation dental practitioner:

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Is the Sedation Dentist Reading qualified to perform sedation dentistry?

Is the dental specialist experienced at sedation dentistry? You should get all the vital points of interest.

Is the dental practitioner associated with any neighborhood doctor’s facilities?

What sorts of patients does the sedation dental practitioner treat routinely?

What kind of sedation does the dental specialist offer? Alternatives on sedation are not uniform for all, and they are not tradable with each other.

Does the sedation dental practitioner have affiliations with other dental authorities, for example, orthodontists, prosthodontists, periodontists, and endodontists to make certain that the greater part of your dental needs can be met?

Is it conceivable to consolidate all medicines if important to diminish the quantity of arrangements?

Is the Sedation Dentist Reading considered a pediatric sedation dental practitioner?

Could this sedation dental practitioner work with your protection arrangement?

These are useful points to for the interest to guarantee your wellbeing and also the security of your relatives. It is presently conceivable to experience an agony free dental method. Gone are the days when you feel all the passionate and physical torment of sitting in a dental seat. Try not to falter to visit your Albuquerque sedation dental specialist to examine every one of the matters imperative for you to know with respect to sedation dentistry. Keep in your brain that the most recent advancements in dentistry made all things conceivable, including a torment free dentistry.

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Ontario Votes 2007: Interview with Green candidate Jim Reeves, York-Simcoe

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Monday, October 1, 2007

Jim Reeves is running for the Green Party of Ontario in the Ontario provincial election, in the York-Simcoe riding. Wikinews’ Nick Moreau interviewed him regarding his values, his experience, and his campaign.

Stay tuned for further interviews; every candidate from every party is eligible, and will be contacted. Expect interviews from Liberals, Progressive Conservatives, New Democratic Party members, Ontario Greens, as well as members from the Family Coalition, Freedom, Communist, Libertarian, and Confederation of Regions parties, as well as independents.

P&G to acquire Gillette for US$57 billion

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Friday, January 28, 2005

New York –American manufacturing giant Proctor & Gamble (P&G) plans to acquire Gillette Co. for US$57 billion in stock. The purchase plan calls for P&G to swap 0.975 shares of its stock per share of Gillete Co. P&G also announced a stock buyback program in which they would purchase up to US$22 billion of shares over the next 18 months. Including the stock buyback program, the merger is being financed by 60 percent stock and 40 percent cash.

P&G is known for brands such as Ariel and Tide washing powder, Max Factor cosmetics, Pringles potato crisps (chips) and Hugo Boss and Lacoste perfumes.

Gillette, known for brands such as Gillette razors, Oral B dental care, and Duracell batteries, has had growing problems with the growth of private labels and price cuts demanded by large supermarkets.

After the acquisition is completed, Gillette’s CEO James Kilts will be P&G’s vice-chairman. Kilts said that he expects that this acquisition will cause additional mergers to take place.

“I believe the consumer product industry needs to consolidate,” said Kilts, “we believe we can bring these companies together and create a juggernaut.”

P&G and Gillette have a combined market capitalization of about $185 billion US, which will make it the largest in the sector.

The early morning announcement states that 6,000 employees will be eliminated. Most of the layoffs will result from reducing overlapping management positions and other supporting positions within the combined company.

Antitrust regulators in the US and Europe plan to review the acquisition, to determine whether the combined company will have too much power over pricing and shelf space.

P&G plans to provide additional details about the merger Friday morning (East Coast time) in New York.

State of emergency declared in New York over H1N1 swine flu virus

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Thursday, October 29, 2009

According to US health officials, New York state governor David Paterson has declared a state of emergency in the state as a result of the H1N1 swine flu outbreak.

The Associated Press news agency reports that the six-page declaration was issued because at least 75 people have died of H1N1 related illnesses in New York since April. Three have died from H1N1 related illnesses just this past week. The declaration also says that human cases of the virus are on the rise.

Paterson says he issued the declaration because “a disaster has occurred throughout New York State, for which the affected local governments are unable to respond adequately.”

The declaration will allow health officials more access to the H1N1 vaccine and the seasonal flu shot. It will also allow for an increase in the number of vaccine doses available in the state and will allow more health care facilities to administer the vaccine, including dentists and pharmacists. Schools with health centers will also be allowed to administer both vaccines.

Despite the declaration, officials stressed that there is no reason to worry. A spokeswoman for the New York State Department of Health, Claire Pospisil, said that “it [the declaration] helps us to be more prepared.”

The order came shortly after US president Barack Obama declared a national emergency last Saturday, a response to the spreading of the virus, which has now been circulated in 46 states.

How Significant Is Concrete Parking Lot Repair?}

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How significant is Concrete Parking Lot Repair?

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Is your concrete parking lot still looking drab? Are the steel frames jutting out and concrete falling apart? This may be a sign that the parking lot needs essential maintenance before one meets with an accident.

A single crack in a concrete structure can get aggravated and become the reason for further demolition. The crack needs to be cured at the initial stage, or the else chances are high that the entire parking lot can become inaccessible for future use.

The excellent teams of experts provide repair, construction, and installation in parking areas at industrial, commercial, multi-unit apartment, retail facilities and more. The contractors and professional experts are equipped with the best tools to construct and repair the basement area. They also provide materials that can be used for protecting the concrete structures from future damages and deterioration.

Reasons leading to further damages

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With continuous use these parking lots tend to get deteriorated in condition. The concrete parking lot needs maintenance as it provides continuous service regarding parking facilities. Since this area is solely utilized for the purpose of parking, the vehicles the asphalt salt depositions and the CO2 emissions do leave an impact on the structures. These do affect the interior framework of the parking lot. The asphalt salt causes corrosion which leads to the exposure of steel frames from the concrete structures.

The pollutants and emissions released from the vehicles can not only affect the concrete by creating cracks but also further damages like carbonation, leaching, corrosion, and more degradation.

The profound restoration services provided

The cracks that are formed can lead to further leakage of moisture that can be very damaging for the concrete. The concrete sealing can help in improving the appearance of the parking lot. The seal coat helps in smooth the asphalt surfaces. These assist in hiding the damages and spots, cracks, patches, and surface depressions formed on the concrete formations.

Sealing cracks or joints: The joints may consist of faults or cracks that need to be catered to with immediate services so that they do not get aggravated to become a reason for the ultimate demolition of the concrete structure.

Pavement repair: The pavement repair is significant since the potholes and cracks on the basement and pavement region can become a hindrance for the cars to park safely without causing an accident.

Replace the asphalt: The asphalt depositions are black viscous depositions that are formed from the emission of the vehicles. These need to be replaced for better maintenance of the concrete parking lot.

Superimposing of soil: The overlaying of the soil is imperative and is one repairing where the leveling of the basement is much required for proper functioning of the parking facilities.

Repair using epoxy: The injections are one of the best methods of curing and sealing cracks. These injections help in dispensing the liquid seals into the cracks and thereby bringing immediate relief.

Protective coating: This is done to protect the concrete region from any further damage.

Bton Concept AM uses the best methods in the industry for the restoration and concrete parking lot repair with the goal to re-establish the integrity and bearing capacity of concrete structures.We also use advanced protection systems to protect concrete against future deterioration. Bton Concept AM can provide professional services and personalized solutions.rfection de stationnement intrieur.For more information about

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American city officials warned about dirty bomb threat

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By5M4zvM

Thursday, October 19, 2006

City officials in seven United States cities were warned today about a possible attack on NFL stadiums using “dirty bombs.” The Department of Homeland Security, which issued the warnings, has also added that the threat is “not credible.”

The bomb threat, originally discovered on 4chan, stated that truck bombs containing radiological materials would be detonated during the football games this Sunday. While the Department of Homeland Security did not disclose which cities were mentioned, an unnamed department official has said the cities named were Atlanta, Miami, New York, Seattle, Houston, Oakland, California, and Cleveland, Ohio.

In response to the threat, several teams are scheduled to sweep some stadiums with radiation detection devices on Sunday for the presence of radioactive materials. In addition, the parking areas and entrances will be monitored closely for suspicious activity. The NFL has released a statement saying that the stadiums are well protected through security measures already in place.

The FBI has questioned a Milwaukee resident said to be responsible for the threats, which were posted on the web site last week. The FBI has declined to release the details of the investigation.

Bangkok hit with further New Year bomb blasts

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Monday, January 1, 2007

More bombs went off just after midnight (0500 GMT) on New Year’s Day in Bangkok, injuring eight people near a shopping mall where hours before a New Year’s Eve countdown was cancelled due to a string of six bombings earlier in the evening.

The first bomb exploded at a seafood restaurant on the Saen Saeb Canal near Pratunam Pier just seconds after midnight.

Three foreigners and two Thais were injured. One of the foreigners had her legs amputated by the blast, according to television and local newspaper reports. The foreign tourists were having dinner at the restaurant.

Police said the bomb was hidden in a tire at the pier.

A second bomb exploded in a telephone booth near a pedestrian bridge at CentralWorld, where thousands of people had gathered earlier in the evening for a countdown party and had been urged by authorities to leave the area and go home. Several foreigners were injured and rushed to hospitals.

Another bomb was found and disposed of without incident at Suan Lum Night Bazaar, another late-night venue for tourists.

A possible bomb was investigated at Buddy Bar, a popular music venue on Khaosan Road. It turned out to be a false report. Police had earlier closed the venue and other bars on the street frequented by backpackers, urging people to return to their hotels and guesthouses.

Earlier in the evening, bombs had gone off at six locations across the city, from about 6:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. Twenty-five people were injured and three later died at hospitals from their injuries. The biggest toll was at Victory Monument, where 17 people were injured, two of them dying from their injuries. Other targets were a police booth at Saphan Kwai intersection, where two people were injured, and a market in Khlong Toei, where three people were injured, one fatally. At Seacon Square shopping mall, a bomb was found in a trash can inside the mall and taken to the parking lot, where it exploded without injuring anyone. Police booths on Sukhumvit Soi 62 and in suburban Nonthaburi were also hit, but there were no injuries.

After the bombings, Bangkok Governor Apirak Kosayothin had ordered the cancellation of the countdown celebrations at Central World and Sanam Luang and other smaller ones.

“Due to several bomb explosions in Bangkok and for the sake of peace and security, I would ask all of you to return to your homes now,” Apirak told a crowd of around 5,000 people at CentralWorld. Most of the crowd dispersed quickly and calmly.

Army Commander-in-Chief General Sonthi Boonyaratglin ordered soldiers deployed around the capital. Security was intensified on the Metro and Skytrain rail systems. The Skytrain cancelled plans to run all night and closed at midnight as usual. Department stores closed early.

Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont visited victims at a local hospital. He appeared on television looking tense, telling reporters he didn’t know who was responsible for the attacks.

Surayud was appointed premier after a coup d’état on September 19 in which the military led by Sonthi ousted prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra.

The Nation newspaper quoted a “security source” as saying “the old power clique” was behind the bombing.

However, there is also the ongoing violence by Muslim separatists in the South Thailand insurgency, which has left 1,900 people dead since 2004.